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THE HISTORY OF THE KARACHAI-BALKARIAN PEOPLE

BASIC DATES AND EVENTS


IV–II millennium BC Ancient pit archeological culture, the formation of pra-Turks.
XVI–IX centuries BC Frame culture.
VIII century BC Assirian chronicles report about Kimmerian invasion to the countries of Transcaucasus and Near East. The beginning of Scythian domination in the East-European steppes.
633 BC Scythian invasion to Transcaucasus and Fore-Asia.
512 BC Scythian war with the army of Persian king Dareios Hystaspos invading Scythia.
339 BC The defeat of Scythians led by king Ateios in the battle with the army of Philip of Macedonia. Death of Atheios.
III century BC The rise of Sarmat tribes and their seizing Scythia.
II century BC Migration of a part of Sarmats (Bulgarians) from Northern Caucasus to Transcaucasus.
I century AD (first half) Alans mentioned by the written sources of Ancient Rome for the first time.
35–36 AD Alan participation in Ibero-Parphian war on the side of Iberia.
72 AD The invasion of Alans to Transcaucasus.
135 Alan campaign in Transcaucasus and Media.
Mid. II century Alans defeated by the Roman army at Olvia.
Beg. IV century The invasion of Hun-Maskuts led by king Sanesan to Armenia.
372 Don Alans crushed by the Hun hordes. A part of Alans follows Huns to Europe.
376 Huns and Alans on the boundaries of the Roman Empire.
9 August 378 The battle at Adrianopolis. Roman army defeated by Huns and Alans.
395 Hun campaign in Transcaucasus.
406 The invasion of Alans and Vandals in Gallia (modern France).
409 Alans and Vandals moving from Gallia to Spain.
429 Vandals and Alans come to Northern Africa.
15 June 451 The participation of Alans headed by Sanhiban on the side of Romans and Westgoths in the battle on the Katalaun fields against Huns and Ostgoths.
Mid. VI century The period of king Sarosius’ government in Alania. Establishment of tight contacts between Alania and Byzanth.
584–642 The bloom of Great Bulgaria. Khan Kubrat’s government.
Mid. VII century The formation of Khazar Kahanat assimilating “black” Bulgarians.
651 The defeat of Khazar-Alan army by Arabs in the Euthrates battle.
723–724 The first campaign of Arabian troops led by Zh. Jirrah in Northern Caucasus. The beginning of the Arab wars against Alans and Khazars.
724–725 Second Jirrah’s campaign in Northern Caucasus.
735 The campaign of Arabian military leader Mervan Kru in Alania.
1st half VIII century The government of Alan king Itaz.
End IX century Alans and Bulgars freed from the Khazar power.
Beg. X century First missions of Christian preachers from Byzanth to Alania. Establishing the Alan arch-episcopate. Peter as the first arch-bishop of Alania.
1065 The visit of Alanian king Durguleit the Great to Georgian king Bagrat IV in Kutais.
2nd half XI century Marriage of Maria of Alania with Byzantine emperor Michael Duca. Marriage of Georgian king George III with Alanian princess Burduhan.
1178 Coronation of Queen Tamar on the Georgian throne, the daughter of George III and Burduhan.
1189 Marriage of Queen Tamar with the son of the king of Ovs (Asses, Alans) David Soslan.
X–XII centuries The formation of Karachai-Balkarian (Alan) people completed.
1222 The defeat of Alans and Kipchaks in the first fight against Mongol-Tatars. Mongol-Tatars seizing the capital of Alania Magas (Meget).
1239 Assimilation of Alania by the Golden Horde.
1278 Mongol-Tatars and Russians seize Alan town Dediakov.
1395 The invasion of the army of Tamerlan in Northern Caucasus, the mass murdering Alanian population.
1st half XVII century Balkarians and Karachais first mentioned in Russian documents.
2nd half XVII – beg. XVIII century Kabardins populate the plains of Alania.
9 May 1804 The battle of Kabardins, Balkarians, Karachais and Ossetians with the troops of general G. I. Glazenap on river Chegem.
1810 The encounter of Kabardins and Balkarians with the troops of general Bulgakov.
1822 General A. P. Ermolov’s raid in the canyons of Balkaria.
20 October 1828 The battle of Karachais with the troops of general G. A. Emanuel at Hasauk. Karachai included in Russia.
11 January 1827 Balkaria and Digoria adopted Russian citizenship.

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