Fig. 1. The picture of the world, according to Al-Idrisi (1100–1165).

Fig. 2. The territory of the pra-Turk “pit” (barrow) culture in III millennium BC

Fig. 3. The ancient Asia in III millennium BC in Northern Caucasus (according to the Ancient Greek authors).

Fig. 4. The raids of Scythians, the ancestors of Karachai-Balkarians, through Caucasus to Fore-Asia (by E. I. Krupnov).

Fig. 5. Scythian raids from Fore-Asia to Caucasus (by B. V. Terekhov).

Fig. 6. The Black-Sea world of Scythians (by A. I. Terenozhkin and V. A. Ilyinskaya).

Fig. 7. The Black-Sea world of Scythians (by B. A. Rybakov).

Fig. 8. The Fore-Asian neighbors of Sarmats, the ancestors of Karachai-Balkarians: Iran under Selevkids and Arshakids (III century BC – III century AD, by Richard Frei).

Fig. 9. Sasanid Iran and Transcaucasus during the formation of the Alan (Karachai-Balkarian) state (by Frei).

Fig. 10. Mongol campaigns against the ancestors of Karachai-Balkarians and Alan migration to the Mongol-Chinese empire, Hungary, Moldavia, Byzanth and Transcaucasus (by V. A. Kuznetsov).

Fig. 11. Bulgarians and Khazars, the ancestors of Karachai-Balkarians and the successors of Huns, in Northern Caucasus.

Fig. 12. Alan-Bulgarian-Khazar wars in VI–VII centuries (by S. A. Pletneva).

Fig. 13. Khazars, Alans and other mountain tribes in VII century (by the “Armenian geography” of VII century).

Fig. 14. The territory of Caucasian Bulgarians in VII–IX centuries (by V. F. Hening and A. Kh. Khalikov).

Fig. 15. Alania under the blows of Khazars (by S. A. Pletneva).

Fig. 16. Alan-Bulgarian and Arab-Khazar wars in VIII century and the migration of a part of Alans to the upper reaches of Don and Donets (by V. A. Kuznetsov).

Fig. 17. Eurasian steppes in VIII–IX centuries, with the population of which the ancestors of Karachai-Balkarians were closely connected (by S. A. Pletneva).

Fig. 18. Alania, its cities and trade ways in VI–XII centuries (by V. A. Kuznetsov).

Fig. 19. Alans in the time of the Golden Horde, the reduction of their territory.

Fig. 20. Alan-Asses, the ancestors of Karachai-Balkarians, before the Mongol-Tatar invasion.



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